Senin, 05 April 2010

The Audio Lingual VS Silent Way Method

As we enter the classroom, the first thing we notice is that the students are attentively listening as the teacher is presenting a new dialog, a conversation between two people. The students know they will be expected to eventually memorize the dialog the teacher is introducing. All of the teacher’s instructions are in English. Sometimes she uses actions to convey meaning, but not one word of the students’ native language is uttered. Then the teacher says: ok class listen carefully.

Two people are walking along a sidewalk in town aere named Sally and Bill. Listen to their conversation:
Sally: Good morning, Bill.
Bill : Good morning.
Sally: How are you?
Bill : Fine, thanks, And you?
Sally: Fine. Where are you going?
Bill : I’m going to the post office.
Sally: I am too. Shall we go together?
Bill : Sure. Let’s go.
Listen one more time. This time try to understand all that I am saying,’ Now she has the whole class repeaT each of the lines of the dialog after her model. They repeat each line several times before moving on to the next line. When the class comes to the lines, I’m going to the ppost office,’ they stumble a bit in their repetition. The teacher, at this point,, stops the repetition and uses a backward build-up drill (expansion drill). The purpose of this drill is to break down the troublesome sentence into smaller parts. The teacher starts with the end of the sentence and has the class repeat just the last two words, and the class repeats this expanded phrase. Little by little the teacher builds up the phrases until the entire sentence is being repeated.
TEACHER: Repeat after me: Post office
CLASS : Post Office
TEACHER: To the post office
CLASS : To the post office
TEACHER: Going to the post office
CLASS : Going to the post office
TEACHER: I’m going to the post office
CLASS : I’m going to the post office

Through this step-by-step procedure, the teacher is able to give the students help in producing the troublesome line. Having worked on the line in small pieces, the students are also able to take note of where each word or phrase begins and ends in the sentence.
In effect; the class is experiencing a repetition drill where the task is to listen carefully and attempt to mimic the teacher’s model as accurately as possible. Next the class and the teacher switch roles in order to practice a little more, the teacher saying Bill’s lines and the class saying Sally’s. Then the teacher divides the clas in half so that each half gets to try to say on their own either Bill’s or Sally’s lines. To further practice the lines of this dialog, the teacher has all the boys in the class take Bill’s part and all the girl take Sally’s.
She then initiates a chain d ill with four of the lines from dialog. A chain drill gives students an opportunity to say the lines individually. The teacher listens and can tell which students are struggling and will need more practice. A chain drill also lets students use the expressions in communication with someone else, eventhough the communication is very limited. The teacher addresses the student nearest her with, Good morning,Jose.’ He, in turn, responds,’ Good morning, teacher.’ She says. ‘How are you?’ ‘Jose answers, ‘Fine,thanks. And you?’ The teacher replies, ‘Fine.’ He understands through the teacher’s gestures that he is to turn,says her lines in reply to him. When she has finished, she greets the student on the other side of her. This chain continues until all of the students have a chance to ask and answer the question. Then the teacher moves next to the second major phase of the lesson. She continues to drill the students with language from the dialog, but these drill require more than simple repetition.
The first drill the teacher leads is a single-slot substitution drill in which the student will repeat a sentence from the dialog and replace a word or phrase in the sentence with the word or phrase the teacher gives them. This word or phrase is called the clue. The teacher begins by reciting a line from the dialog, ‘I am going to the post office,’ Following this she shows the students a picture of a bank and says the phrase, ‘The bank. ‘She pauses,then says, ‘I’am going to the bank. ‘From her example the students realize that they are supposed to take the cue phrase, (‘the bank.‘), which the teacher supplies, and put it into its proper place in the sentence. Now she gives them their first cue phrase, ‘The drugstore. ‘Together the students respond, ‘I am going to the drugstore. The students chorus, ‘I am going to the park,’ Other cues she offers in turn are ‘the cafe,’ ‘The supermarket,’ ‘the bus station,’ ‘the football field,’ ‘and ‘the librsry.’ Each cue is accompanied by a picture as before. After thr students have gone through the drill sequence three times, the teacher no longer provides a spokencue phrase instead she simply shows the pictures one at a tim, and the students repeat the entire sentence, putting the name of the place in the picture in the appropriate slot in the sentence.This substitution drill is slightly more difficult for the student since they have to change the form of the verb ‘be’ , ‘to’ ,’is’, ‘or’, ‘are’, depending on which subject pronounthe teacher gives them.
Instead, after going through the drill a few times suplying oral cues, the teacher points to a boy in the class and the studens understand they are to use the pronoun’he’ in the sentence. Finally, the teacher increases the complexity of the task by leading the students in a multiple-slot substitution drill. This is essentially the same type of drill as the single-slot the teacher just used. However with this drill, students must recognize what part of speech the cue word is and where it fits into the sentence. The sthen they must make a decision concerning where the cue word or phrase belongs in the sentence also supplied by the teacher. The teacher in this class starts off by having the students repeat the originalom the dialog. ‘I am going to the post office’. Then she gives them the cue’she.’ The students understand and produce, ‘She is going to the post office,’ the next cue the teacher offers is ‘to the park.’ The student hesitate at first; then they respond by correctly producing, ‘She is going to the park.’ She continues in this manner, sometimes providing a subject pronoun, other times naming a location.
The substitution drills are followed by a transformation drill. This type of drill asks students to change one type of sentence into another-an affirmative sentence into a negative or an active sentence into a passive., for example, ‘I say, “She is going to the post office.” You make a question by saying, “Is she going to the post office?”
The teacher models ttwo more examples of this transformation, then asks, ‘Does everyone understand? OK,lets begin. “They are going to the bank.” “The class replies in turn, ‘Are they going to the bank?’ They transform approximately fifteen of these patterns, and then the teacher decides they are ready to move on to a question-and-answer drill. The teacher holds up one of the pictures she used earlier, the picture of a football field,and aaks the class. ‘Are you going to the football field?’ she answer, ‘ Yes, I’m going to the football fiel.,’ She poses the next question while holding up a picture of a park, ‘Are you going to the park?’ And again answer herself, ‘Yes, I’m going to the park.’ She holds up a third picture, the one of a library?’ She poses a question to the class, ‘Are you going to library?’ They respond together,going to the library.’
‘Very Good,’the teacher says. Through her action and examples, the students have learned that they are to answer the questions following the patterns she has modelled. The teacher drill them with this pattern for the nextfew minutes. Since the students can handle it, she poses the question to selected individuals rapidly, one after another. The students are expected to respond very quikly,without pausing. She works a little longer on this question-and-answer drill, sometimes providing her students with situations that require a negative answer and sometimes encouragement to each student. She holds up pictures and poses question one right after another,but the students seem to have no trouble keeping up with her. The only time she changes the rhythm is when a student seriously mispronounces a word. When this occurs she restates the word and work briefly with student until his pronunciation is closer to her own.
The students have learned the lines of the dialog and to respond without hesitation to her cues in the drill lesson later this week the teacher will do the following:
1. Review the dialog
2. Expand upon the dialog by adding a few more lines, such as ’I am going to the post office. I need a few stamps.’
3. Drill the new lines and introduce some new vocabulary items through the new lines, for example:
‘I am going to the supermarket. I need a little nutter.’
‘... library ... few books.’
‘ drugstore. ... little medicine.’
4. Work on the difference between mass and count nouns, contrasting ‘a little/a few’ with mass and count nouns respectively. No grammar rule will ever be given to the students. The students will be led to figure out the rules from their work with the examples the teacher provides.
5. A contrastive analysis (the comparison of two language, in thia case, the students’ native language and the target language,English) has led the teacher to expect that the students will have special trouble with the pronunciation of words such as ‘little,’ which contain/l/. The student di indeed say the wor as if it contained/iy/. As a result, the teacher works on the contrast between /iy/ and /l/ several times during the week. She uses minimal-pair words, such as’sheep,’ ‘ship,’; ‘leave,’ ‘live’; and ‘he’s, ‘his’ to get her student first to hear the difference in pronunciation between the words in each pair.
6. Sometime toward the end of the week the teacher writes the dialog on the blackboard. Then the students copy the dialog in their notebooks. They also do some limited written work with the dialog. In one exercise the teacher has erased fifteen selected words from the expanded dialog. The students hato rewrite the dialog in their notebooks, supplying the missing words without looking at the complete dialog theycopied earlier.
7. On Friday the teacher leads the class in the ‘supermsrket alphabet game.’ The game stsrta with a students who needs a food item beginning with the letter ‘A.’ The students say, ‘I am going to the supermarket. I need a few apples.’ The next student says, ‘I need a little bread (or ‘a few bannas” or any other food item you could find i the supermarket beginning with the letter “B”). The third student continues, ‘I am going to the supermarket. He need a few apples,she need a little bread and I need a little cheese.’
The game continues with each player adding an item that begins with the next letter in the alphabet.
8. A presentation by the teacher on supermarket in the USA follows the game. The teacher tries very hard to get meaning across in English. The teacher answer the students question about the differences between supermarket in the USA and open-air markets in Mali. They also discuss briefly the differences between American and Malian football. The studentS seem very interested in the discussion.


At this point we should turn to the ten question we have answered for each method we have considered so far:..
1. What are the goals of teacher who use the Audio-Lingual Method?
Teacher want their students to be able to use the target language communicatively. In order to do this, the. In order to do this, they believe students need to overlearn the target language, to learn to use it automatically without stopping to think.
2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
The teacher is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavior of her students. She also responsible for providing her students with a goodmodel for immitators of the teacher’s model or the tapes she supllies of model speakers.
3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented through dialog. The dialog are learned through imitation and repetition. Drill (such as repetition,backward build-up,chain,substitution,tranformation,and question-and-answer) are conducted based upon the pattern present in the -ialog. Grammar is induced from the examples given; explicit grammar rules are not provided.
4. What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
There is student-to-student interaction in chain drills or when students take different roles in dialog,but this interaction is teacher-directed.
5. How are the feelings of the students dealt with?
There are no priciples of the method that relate to this area.
6. How is the language viewed? How is the culture viewed?
The view of language in the Audio-Lingual Method has been influenced by descriptive linguists. Every language is seen as having its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels phonological,morphological, and syntactic. Each levels has its own distinctive patterns.
7. What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
Vocabulary is kept to minimum while the students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. A grammatical pattern is not the same as a sentence. For instance,underlying the following three sentences is the same grammatical pat ern: Meg called,The Blue Jayswon,The team practiced.
The natural order of skills presentation is adhered to: listening,speaking,reading, and wriiting. The oral/aural skills receive most of the attention. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning, often by students working in language laboratories on discriminating between members of minimal pairs.
8. What he role of the student’s native language?
The habits of the students’ native language are thought to interfere with the students’ attempt to master the target language. A contrastive analysis between the students' native language and the target language will reveal where a teacher should expect the most interference.
9. How is eveluation accomplished?
The answer to the question is not obvious because we did not actually observe the students in the class taking a formal test. If we had, we would have seen that it was discrete-point in nature,that is, each question on the test would focus on only, one point of the language at a time.
10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
Student errors are to be avoided if at all possible through the teacher’s awarences of where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say.

IF you agree with the above answer, you may wish to implement the following techniques; of course,evwn if you do not agree, there may be techniques describe below that you are already using or can adapt to your approach.
Dialogs or short conversation between two people are often used to begin a new lesson. Students memorize th dialog through mimicry; student usually take the role of one person in the dialog, and the teacher the other. Another way of practicing the two roles is for half of the class to take one role and the other half to take the other. In the Audio-Lingual Method, certain sentence patterns and grammar points are included within the dialog. These patterns and points are later practiced in drills based on the lines of the dialog.
This drill is used when a long line of a dialog is giving students trouble. The teacher vreaks down the line into several parts. Then, following the teacher’s cue, the students expand what they are repeating part by part untill they are able to repeAT the entire lines. The teacher begins with the part at the end of the sentence (works backward from there) to keep the int keep the intonation of the line as natural as possible.
Students are asked to repeat the teacher’s model as accurately and as quickly as possible. This drill is often u sed to teach the lines of the dialog.
A chain driil gets its name from the chain of conversation that forms around the room as students, one-by-one, ask and answer question of each other. The teacher begins the chain by gretting a particultural student or asking him a question. A chain drill allows some controlled communication, eventhough it is limited. A chain drill also gives the teacher an oppoturnities to check each student’s sprech.
The teacher says a line,usually from the dialog then she says a word or a phrase-caalled cue. The major purpose of this drill is to give the students practice in finding and filling in the slots of a sentence.
This drill is similiar to the single-slot substitution drill. The difference is that the teacher gives cue phrase,one at time, that fit into different slots in the dialog line.
The teacher gives students a certain kind of sentence pattern, an affirmative sentence for example. Other example of transformation to ask of student are changing a statement into a question, an active sentence into a passive one,or direct speech into reported speech.

This drill gives student practice with answering questions. The students should answer the teacher’s questions very quikly. This gives students practice with the question patterns.

The teacher pairs of words which differ in only one sound. For example: ‘ship/sheep’. Student ask to they teacheo read it and difference two words. The teacher selects the sounds to work on after she has done a contrastive analysis, a comparison between the students’ native language an dthe language they are studying.

Selected words are erased from a dialog students have learned. Students complete the dialog by filling the blanks with the missing words.

Games like the supermarket alphabet game described in this chapter are used in the Audio Lingual Method. The games are designed to get students to practice a grammar point within a context and it is rather limited in this game.

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